Mass Communication Questions and Answers

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Mass Communication Questions and Answers

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Questions and Answers on Mass Communication

1. The term ‘mesmerism’ is used in reference to the ways in which:
(A) Society influences individuals
(B) Individuals memorise theological lessons
(C) Franz Mesmer teaches his students
(D) Media influence people

2. Colour printing demands colour:
(A) Integration
(B) Dilution
(C) Separation
(D) Concentration

3. Which organization has instituted awards for the best stories for the coverage of conflict in Indian Print media?

4. Simultaneous transmission of several channels of compressed digital contents of television is referred to as:
(A) Digicast
(B) Narrowcast
(C) Personalcast
(D) Multicast

5. “Television is the cultural arm of the established industrial order which serves primarily to maintain, stabilize and reinforce rather than alter, threaten or weaken convential beliefs and behaviours.” Thisstatement by Gross (1977) aptly sums up which of the following theories of media effects?
(A) Spiral of silence effect
(B) Knowledge gap effect
(C) Catharsis effect
(D) Cultivation effect

6. Which of the following is not a feature of the ‘Cultural-Reception Analysis’ tradition of mass-media audience research?
(A) Emphasis on the socio-cultural context of media use
(B) Emphasis on ethnographic and qualitative methods
(C) Importance attached to the intense power of media content or messages
(D) Importance attached to the interpretative power of media audiences

7. Perception is the process by which people:
(A) discriminate against other people to gain the dominant advantage in the communication process
(B) select, organise and interpret data in order to give meaning to a message
(C) select, organise and interpret information in order to understand non-verbal messages
(D) find the difference between two messages

8. Which of the following is not true about feedback?
(A) Feedback can be verbal or nonverbal
(B) It is always immediately available
(C) It indicates effective understanding or misunderstanding of the message
(D) It follows sending of the message

9. Charles H. Cooley’s term ‘enlargement’ refers to the expansion of:
(A) Limbs as a growth of human body
(B) People’s system of knowledge and beliefs
(C) Media technology
(D) Material structure

10. Who has pioneered the use of the term ‘information society’?
(A) Alvin Toffler
(B) Daniel Bell
(C) Yoneji Masuda
(D) William Martin

11. Who popularised the metaphor ‘The Information Superhighway’ for a wired universe interlinked by networks of computers in early 1990s?
(A) John Naisbett
(B) Vincent Mosco
(C) Al Gore
(D) Manuel Castell

12. Who directed the most controversial Czechoslovakian (1933) movie ‘Ecstasy’?
(A) Andre Bazin
(B) Gustav Machaty
(C) D.W. Griffith
(D) Sergei Eisenstein

13. What do most audience measurement exercises carried out in ‘structuralist’ mode by media industry primarily focus on?
(A) Frequency of instance of media use
(B) Internalization of media message
(C) Effects of media content on behaviour
(D) Aesthetic appreciation of media content

14. Which of the following is the most appropriate method to carry out a research on the ‘framing’ of an issue by media over a long period of time?
(A) Survey of audiences
(B) Content Analysis
(C) Experimental Method
(D) Visual Analysis

15. Identify the correct hierarchy of the designations from the top-most post to the lowest post in a typical newspaper set-up:
(A) Resident Editor, Executive Editor, News-editor, Sub-editor
(B) Executive Editor, Sub-editor, Resident Editor, News-editor
(C) Resident Editor, Executive Editor, Sub-editor, News-editor
(D) Executive Editor, Resident Editor, News-editor, Sub-editor

16. In many developed countries, the circulation of the printed copies of newspaper is on fast decline. However, in India this trend is not yet seen as significantly as in the case of the developed countries. This could be mainly attributed to:
(i) high standards of ethical journalism
(ii) increase in the literacy
(iii) low rates of price and subscription of newspapers
(iv) decrease in the import cost of newsprint
(A) Only options (i) and (ii ) are correct
(B) Only options (ii) and (iii) are correct
(C) Only options (iii) and (iv) are correct
(D) Only options (i) and (iv) are correct

17. Arrange the following publications in the correct chronological order:
Pudhari, Maharashtra Times, Loksatta, Dnyanprakash
(A) Pudhari, Loksatta, Maharashtra Times, Dnyanprakash
(B) Loksatta, Pudhari, Maharashtra Times, Dnyanprakash
(C) Maharashtra Times, Loksatta, Dnyanprakash, Pudhari
(D) Dnyanprakash, Pudhari, Loksatta, Maharashtra Times

18. In the context of Indian television NBA is a:
(A) Constitutional Regulatory Body
(B) Self-regulatory body
(C) Judicial body for media
(D) Quasi-judicial body for media

19. Which of the following is not a normative or regulatory body in the context of Indian Media?

20. Although film songs were very popular in India they were banned on All India Radio by Information and Broadcasting Minister B.V. Keskar in the 1950s. A classical music enthusiast himself, he encouraged classical music on AIR instead in order to ‘elevate’ the musical taste of people. This perspective to look down upon ‘popular’ and look up to ‘classical’ is very similar to the perspective held by:
(A) Theodore Adorno of Frankfurt School
(B) Marshall McLuhan of Toronto School
(C) George Gerbner of Birmingham School
(D) Stuart Hall of Chicago School

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21. In 1995 the Supreme Court pronounced that the ‘airwaves are public property’ and could not be monopoly of government or business. How did the government react to this pronouncement in terms of policy change?
(A) Foreign direct investment was allowed in the field of broadcasting
(B) Community radio stations were allowed to operate
(C) Radio waves were opened up for auction to private bidders
(D) A public trust was established to upgrade and distribute airwaves

22. What is a research design?
(A) Way of conducting research that is not grounded in theory
(B) The choice between using qualitative or quantitative methods
(C) The style in which you present your research findings
(D) A framework for every stage of the collection and analysis of data

23. According to the Press Council of India guidelines the Press shall not tape-record anyone’s conversation without that person’s knowledge or consent, except:
(i) when the editor says so
(ii) where the recording is necessary to protect the journalist in a legal action
(iii) when the court says so
(iv) for a ‘compelling good reason’
(A) Only (i) is true
(B) (ii) and (iii) are true
(C) Only (ii) is true
(D) (ii) and (iv) are true

24. Public relations people who use Video News Releases take advantage of the fact that:
(A) Many news organisations do not review them before broadcasting
(B) Reporters hired to make them have many industry contacts
(C) They can cover stories some local news operations are not able to
(D) Their production values may be better than those of local stations

25. Communication theorist whose ideas on technology, culture and the media have been source of considerable debates in media studies who wrote ‘The Mechanical Bride: Folklore of Industrial Man (1951)’ and ‘War and Peace in the Global Village (1968)’ is:
(A) Marshall McLuhan
(B) Denis McQuail
(C) Claude Shannon
(D) Wilbur Schramm

26. Who among these is not a commentator on the Natyashastra?
(A) Narada
(B) Abhinavgupta
(C) Shankuka
(D) Bhattanayaka

27. One of the major issues in NWICO was:
(A) Balance of trade
(B) Poverty
(C) Unbalanced radio spectrum
(D) Agricultural dominance

28. Transmission of a programme from an earth station to a satellite is called:
(A) Uploading
(B) Uplinking
(C) Downloading
(D) Downlinking

29. Which was the first radio communication satellite launched in 1963?
(A) Telstar
(B) Radio America
(C) Intelsat
(D) Sputnik

30. Who among these are not associated with coining the word ‘Akashvani’ for AIR?
(A) Rabindranath Tagore
(B) G.D. Madgulkar
(C) M.V. Gopalaswamy
(D) Narayana Kasturi

31. On August 30, 1935 who was appointed the first Controller of Broadcasting in India?
(A) Narayana Kasturi
(B) Lionel Fielden
(C) M.V. Gopalaswamy
(D) Susan Bassnett

32. The object of this Act is to provide for the regulation of the printing presses and of periodicals containing news, for preservation of copies of books and for the registration of books:
(A) Press Act, 1853
(B) PCI, 1960
(C) Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867
(D) IPC, 1860

33. Planned publicity that spreads rapidly not only by ‘word of mouth’ but also by e-Mail and social networking sites is called:
(A) Strategic Advertising
(B) Viral Advertising
(C) Customized Advertising
(D) Off and On-line Advertising

34. “The main landmark event that opened the way to the development of communication theory was the publication of ‘A mathematical theory of communication’ by:
(A) Paul Lazarsfeld and Wilbur Schramm
(B) Shannon and Weaver
(C) Harold Laswell
(D) Alan Turing

35. In 1960, David Berlo created the SMCR model of communication. SMCR stands for:
(A) Semiotic-message-course-reply
(B) Sender -medium- channel – receiver
(C) Sender -message- channel – receiver
(D) Sender-message-course-receiver

36. A computer’s memory capacity, measured in megabytes, which determines the amount of data the computer can process and temporarily store at any moment is called:
(A) Storage memory
(B) Cache memory
(C) Read only memory
(D) Random Access Memory

37. ‘Pong’, Space Invaders, Pac-man are:
(A) Early home video games
(B) New Android apps
(C) Software used for computer games
(D) First scifi cartoons in Newspapers

38. The hypothesis of George Gerbner’s “Cultivation Analysis” refers to:
(A) The more people view television, the more their ideas correspond with the ‘television view’
(B) An attitude or orientation towards a particular culture through media
(C) The consequences or outcome of Agenda setting can be studied through this analysis
(D) Cope-up mechanism, when there is general decline of the mass audiences

39. Public relations is defined as the art or science of:
(A) expressing one’s political opinions to the public
(B) attempting to get various sectors of the public to have a better relationship with each other
(C) establishing and promoting a favourable relationship with the public
(D) making public the details of celebrities relationships

40. The seven elements of the process model of communication are:
(A) sender, telephone, receiver, status, message, interference and feedback
(B) sender, channel, message, perception, feelings and attitudes
(C) sender, receiver, channel, message, interference, feedback and context
(D) content, sender, feedback, perception, attitudes, receiver and status

41. According to the Agenda-Setting Theory the media influences public agenda by:
(A) Giving more exposure to particular topics
(B) Telling the audience that a topic is good or bad
(C) Offering all sides and opinions of the issue
(D) Polling viewers and readers about their options

42. Which theory assumes that television viewers “watch by the clock” rather than choosing specific programmes?
(A) Audience
(B) Cultivation
(C) Uses and Gratifications
(D) Framing

43. The Supreme Court in March, 2015 held that Section 66A of the IT Act was unconstitutional because:
(i) it failed the clear and present danger test
(ii) it failed the Hicklin test
(iii) it failed the Miller test
(iv) it failed the tendency to create public disorder test
(A) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(B) (i) and (ii) are correct
(C) (iii) and (iv) are correct
(D) (ii) and (iv) are correct

44. What is a linear narrative?
(A) A plot that relates to an ocean liner
(B) A plot that moves forward in a straight line without flashbacks or digressions
(C) A plot that includes time travel
(D) Editing on a computer

45. The main goal of early press agentry was:
(A) to use hype to generate publicity for clients
(B) to impress upon the public the importance of publicity
(C) to make corporate clients appear to be interested in social responsibility
(D) resolve scandals by being as truthful as possible with the public

46. In media research, APA style of referencing suggests that works you have cited within the text of the report should be in this form:
(A) State first and last name of the author
(B) Use the author second name and date of publication
(C) Use an asterick and a foot note
(D) Insert the complete citation in parenthesis

47. Which of the following is not an assumption of the Uses and Gratifications theory?
(A) Value judgements of media content can only be assessed by audience
(B) The audience is active and its media use is goal oriented
(C) The media compete with other resources for need satisfaction
(D) The audience accepts what media gives passively

48. In Broadcast Journalism, the term ‘cue’ is used for:
(A) Written Introduction read by a newsreader that links into audio or video
(B) Prioritizing news items and giving headlines
(C) Written part of news story
(D) Shots used in a picture sequence

49. Value judgements should be avoided while writing:
(A) Features
(B) Articles
(C) News stories
(D) Editorials

50. Transferring thoughts, ideas and messages into verbal and non-verbal signs is referred to as:
(A) Encoding
(B) Mediation
(C) Decoding
(D) Channelisation

51. The addressability of Mass Communication is altered by:
(A) The Folk Media
(B) The Personality Oriented Media
(C) The Digital Media
(D) The non-real time media

52. Mass Communication is one of a few …………………………… processes in the pyramid of communication.
(A) Interpersonal
(B) Intergroup
(C) Intragroup
(D) Society-wide

53. Name the city where the International Film Festival was held in 1951.
(A) Delhi
(B) Bombay
(C) Calcutta
(D) Pune

54. Who encouraged first the philosophy Television without frontiers?
(A) European Union
(B) China
(C) Canada
(D) The United States of America

55. What is the nature of broadcasting activity?
(A) Dependent
(B) Individual
(C) Institutional
(D) Political

56. M.L. DeFleur’s model of the American mass media system is based on what type of differentiated audience?
(A) Colour differentiated
(B) Status differentiated
(C) Religion differentiated
(D) Taste differentiated

57. Identify the correct sequence of the steps used for persuation to attend their messages:
(A) Attention, need, visualization, satisfaction
(B) Need, attention, visualization, satisfaction
(C) Satisfaction, visualization, attention, need
(D) Visualization, need, attention, satisfaction

58. According to a survey by C.J. Neilson Research Inc., an average reader is expected to read a minute:
(A) 200 words
(B) 250 words
(C) 300 words
(D) 350 words

59. In communication, social meanings are the part of:
(A) Message speed
(B) Interpretation
(C) Investigation
(D) Non-responsiveness

60. Communication Process is fundamental to all our processes:
(A) Psychological
(B) Social
(C) Social and Cultural
(D) Psychological and Social

61. Expression of opinion as to the public conduct of public servants is not:
(A) a breach of privilege
(B) contempt of public servants
(C) violation of service protection
(D) defamatory

62. Name the city where the International Film Festival-1951 was organised:
(A) Calcutta
(B) Bombay
(C) Pune
(D) Delhi

63. Every media researcher should attempt to eliminate the influence of:
(A) Continuous variables
(B) Independent variables
(C) Control variables
(D) Dependent variables

64. The relationship of the sign to others in its system is called by Saussure as:
(A) Reality
(B) Externality
(C) Changeability
(D) Value

65. The vertical dimension in George Gerbner’s model refers:
(A) Access
(B) Control
(C) Noise
(D) Feedback

66. Like censorship, licensing was a European institution to control the press and was introduced in Bengal in 1823 through which regulation?
(A) Hickey’s Regulation
(B) James’ Regulation
(C) Adam’s Regulation
(D) Mycroft’s Regulation

67. If a publication is half the size of a broadsheet, it is called:
(A) Tabloid
(B) Digest
(C) Single dummy
(D) Double dummy

68. In terms of public awareness, news has the status of:
(A) Dominant Discourse
(B) Conflict Value
(C) Unintended Exchange
(D) Limited Judgement

69. To a positivist researcher, reality is:
(A) Critical
(B) Objective
(C) Interpretative
(D) Conventional

70. Which medium of communication is used since a long for representing the cultural traits of the societies?
(A) Digital medium
(B) Representational medium
(C) Presentational medium
(D) Mechanical medium

71. What Danial Lerner considered as a major component to be in ones personality in the process of development communication?
(A) Sympathy
(B) Apathy
(C) Empathy
(D) Telepathy