Botany Hard Question Papers

1. If the cell is placed in hypertonic solution, what will happen?
(a) Endosmosis
(b) Exosmosis
(c) Deplasmolysis
(d) No change

2. The soil is physiologically dry when:
(a) It has no hygroscopic water
(b) Conc. of soil solution is high er than cell
(c) Soil temp. is 4 Degree Celsius
(d) Excess of CO2 in soil

3. The rate of absorption of water is slow at temperature near freezing point because:
(a) It is mainly a metabolic process
(b) Cell membranes become more permeable
(c) Growth of cell stops
(d) Transpiration is retarded

4. If chlorophyll is burnt, what element will be left?
(a) Fe
(b) Mn
(c) Mg
(d) Na

5. In succulent plants, the stomata open in night and close by day, which of the following would be best hypothesis to explain the mechanism of stomatal action in night only?
(a) CO2 used up, increased the pH results in accumulation of sugars
(b) CO2 accumulates, reduces pH, stimulates enzymes resulting in accumulation of sugars
(c) Increase in CO2 concentration., conversion of organic acids into starch resulting in the increased uptake of potassium ions and water
(d) Low CO2 conc., accumulation of organic acids resulting in the increased conc. Of cell sap

6. Which of the following statements is true with regard to the light reaction of photosynthesis?
(a) In PS-II the reaction centre chlorophyll-a has an absorption peak at 700 nm, hence is called P700
(b) In PS-I the reaction centre chlorophyll-a has an absorption peak at 680 nm, hence is called P 680
(c) the splitting of water molecules is associated with PS-I
(d) PS-I and PS-II are involved in Z scheme

7. The cut surface of an apple fruit turn brown when in contact with air. If the cut apple is dipped in ascorbic acid (Vitamin C solution), browing does not occur. This is because ascorbic acid:
(a) Overcomes cell injury caused by cutting
(b) Inhibits activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO)
(c) Prevents release of polyphenol from damage d cells
(d) Prevents drying of cut surface

8. A plant bends towards the source of light when exposed to the light on only one side. Which of the following is the best explanation of the phenomenon?
(a) They need light for photosynthesis
(b) The apices of their stems are attracted by light
(c) Some auxin accumulates on the shaded side to induce greater cell elongataion on that side.
(d) Light stimulates the cells on the illuminate side to increase in length.

9. Pick out the correct statements.
A. Cytokinins specially help in de laying senescence
B. Auxins are involved in regulating apical dominance
C. Ethylene is specially useful in enhancing seed germination
D. Gibberellins are responsible for immature falling of leaves
(a) A and C only
(b) A and D only
(c) B and C only
(d) A and B only

10. Which of the statements regarding the six principles of International code of botanical nomenclature is correct?
(a) The application of names of taxonomic groups (taxa) is determined by means of nomenclature type
(b) The nomenclature of taxonomic group is based upon priority of publication
(c) Scientific names of taxonomic groups are treated as Latin regardless of their derivation
(d) All of the above

11. Outermost layers of cell wall of Gram +ve and Gram -ve bacteria are of:
(a) Glycoproteins and Lipoproteins respectively
(b) Lipoproteins and Muramic acid respectively
(c) Lipoproteins and Teichoic acid respectively
(d) Teichoic acid and Lipopolysaccharides respectively

12. Mycelium of Rhizopus is:
(a) Unbranched coenocytic
(b) Branched uninucleate
(c) Unbranched uninucleate
(d) Branched coenocytic

13. The sexual reproduction in Spirogyra can be described as:
(a) Morphological anisogamy and physiological isogamy
(b) Morphological as well as physiological isogamy
(c) Morphological as well as physiological anisogamy
(d) Morphological isogamy and physiological anisogamy

14. What is the correct sequence of different zones of atmosphere from below?
(a) Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere
(b) Stratosphere, Troposphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere
(c) Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere, Ionosphere
(d) Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere

15. Correct definition of ecosystem is:
(a) A community of organisms interacting with one another
(b) The abiotic component of a habitat
(c) The part of the earth and its atmosphere which inhabits living organism
(d) The community of the organisms together with the environment in which they live.

16. The term ‘biosphere’ is used for the zone of earth where life exists:
(a) On the lithosphere surface
(b) In the hydrosphere
(c) In the lithosphere and hydrosphere
(d) In the lithosphere and hydrosphere and atmosphere

17. Match the following:
I. Intraspecific interaction
II. Interspecific interaction
III. Habitat
IV. Biome
A. Interaction between the individual of the same species
B. Interaction between the individual of the different species
C. Natural surroundings
D. Community of animal s and plants

18. If phytoplankton’s are destroyed from sea then:
(a) Algae will get more space to grow
(b) Primary consumers will grow luxuriantly
(c) Food chain will be affected
(d) No affect will be seen

19. Consider the following four statements (A-D) and select the correct option
(a) Single cell Spirulina can produce large quantities of food rich in protein, minerals, vitamins, etc
(b) Body weight wise the microrganisms Methylophilus methylotrophous may be able to produce several times more proteins than the cows per day
(c) Common button mushrooms are very rich source of vitamin C
(d) Rice variety has been developed which is very rich in Calcium

20. Okazaki segments are:
(a) Segments of DNA capable of replications
(b) Segments of a chain of nucleotides formed during replication of DNA
(c) Segments of a chain of nucleotides formed during transcription
(d) Segments of a gene which undergo recombination

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21. In DNA 10% guanine is present. How much thymine is present?
(a) 10%
(b) 40%
(c) 80%
(d) 20%

22. Which of the following statement is not consistent with the double helical model of DNA?
(a) The amount of A+T/C+G is not constant in different organisms
(b) Density decreases on heating
(c) A=C, C=G
(d) According to X-Ray diffraction it is a double helical structure

23. The lac operon consists of:
(a) Four regulatory gene only
(b) One regulatory gene and three structural gene
(c) Two regulatory gene and two structural gene
(d) Three regulatory and three structural gene

24. A cross between a plant heterozygous for two factors and a plant recessive for both the factors, gives a phenotypic ratio of:
(a) 9:1:1:7
(b) 9:3:3:1
(c) 1:1:1:1
(d) 1:7:7:1

25. A dwarf pea plant was treated with GA3, it grew as pure tall plant. If it is crossed with pure tall plant, than phenotypic ratio of F1 is likely to be:
(a) All dwarf
(b) 50 %tall, 50% dwarf
(c) 75% tall, 25 % dwarf
(d) All tall

26. Suppose DNA has base sequenced as UAC, GAC, AGC, CGC, ACA, AAA and due to mutation only 1st base is deleted. What is the effect on coding?
(a) 1st amino acid will be different
(b) There will be 1 amino acid less
(c) Complete change in type and sequence of amino acids
(d) No change

27. Suppose DNA has base sequence as AAG GAG GAC CAA CCA, which one represents frame shift mutation?

28. Gardeners pinch off the tip of plants to stimulate their side growth. Which one of the following is implicated in this phenomenon?
(a) Abscisic acid
(b) Auxin
(c) Cytokinin
(d) Gibberellin

29. Which of the following is not correct statement?
(a) Phytochrome can be differentiated from chlorophylls based on solubility
(b) Phytochrome exist in 2 stable state that absorb light at different wavelength
(c) Conversion between phytochome Pr and Pfr is through structural confirmation from cis-trans transition
(d) Nature of the chromophore in phytochrome is carotenoids

30. Which of the following statement does not correctly describe G-protein?
(a) Energy for their activity comes from GTP molecule
(b) They become activated by interaction with “7 pass ‘ receptors
(c) G-proteins are membrane associated proteins
(d) G-protein activation always increases the concentration of cAMP

31. Correct order of energy transfer in LHC will be
(a) Carotenoids to Chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a
(b) Carotenoids to Chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b
(c) Chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b to carotenoids
(d) None of the above

32. Which of the following statement is not correct?
(a) ATPase contain extrinsic and intrinsic proteins
(b) RUPB carboxylase is made up of 8 large and 8 small sub units
(c) Sugar and starch synthesis takes place in cytosol and chloroplasts respectively.
(d) Kranz type anatomy is found in CAM and C4 plants

33. Nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme reduces
(a) Nitrite and nitrate respectively
(b) Nitrate and nitrite respectively
(c) Nitrogen and nitrite respectively
(d) Nitrite, nitrate and ammonia

34. Which is not correct?
(a) Genomic library contain introns
(b) cDNA library does not represent all genes
(c) cDNA library contain fragmented gene
(d) Genomic library contain upstream and down stream sequences of gene

35. Bacterial DNA is not cleaved by their own restriction enzymes because bacteria add __________ to their own DNA
(a) Nucleotides
(b) Methyl group
(c) Ligase
(d) Phosphate

36. During DNA replication, which of the following is not true at the replication fork?
(a) One core DNA polymerase III replicate the leading strand and another molecule replicate the lagging strand
(b) One DNA polymerase III replicate the leading strand and one DNA polymerase I molecule replicate the lagging strand
(c) The sliding clamp protein is behind the DNA polymerase at the primer binding site
(d) A ring of DNA helicase is placed between two polymerases

37. Which of the following best describes the function of the sigma subunit in the RNA polymerase?
(a) It is essential for elongation of the RNA transcript
(b) It is essential for the recognition of and binding to the promoter sequence
(c) It increases RNA polymerase binding to any DNA template
(d) It is required for transcription termination

38. RNAi based silencing of gene is a type of
(a) Transcription gene silencing
(b) Post transcription gene silencing
(c) Translation gene silencing
(d) Post translation gene silencing

39. What is one conclusion that can be drawn from the observation that the genetic code is nearly identical in all cells on earth?
(a) Life on earth evolved only once
(b) Only 4 types of nitrogenous bas es occurs in DNA
(c) Higher forms of life evolved from lower forms
(d) Natural selection

40. In genetics, suppression of a mutation refers to
(a) Restoration of the original phenotype due to a second mutation
(b) Restoration of the original DNA sequence by mutation
(c) Prevention of expression of the mutant gene by metabolic regulation
(d) Appearance of the recessive phenotype in a heterozygous diploid

41. Border sequences need to be incorporated into the design of plasmid vectors for Agrobacterium mediated transformation to ensure
(a) Greater promoter efficiency
(b) Oncogene deactivation
(c) Efficient replication of the plasmid
(d) Integration of the genes of interest into host genome

42. Choose the right combination of components required to set up a polymerase chain reaction from the following
(a) Template DNA, two primers, dNTPs and DNA ligase
(b) Template DNA, two primers, NTPs and DNA ligase
(c) Template RNA, two primers, NTPs and DNA ligase
(d) Template DNA, two primers, dNTPs and DNA poly merase

43. Which of the following can be used for transferring the DNA into the host cells?
P. Transformation Q. Sonication R. Transfection S. Electroporation
(a) Only P can be used
(b) Only Q and R can be used
(c) Only Q, R and S can be used
(d) Only P, R and S can be used

44. What is genomic library?
(a) A collection of recombinant molecules with insert that contain all of the genes of an organism
(b) A collection of recombinant molecules with insert that contain all of an organisms genome
(c) A collection of recombinant molecules that express all of the genes of an organism
(d) A collection of recombinant molecules that have been sequenced

45. The presence of all of the following tend to increase species diversity except
(a) Competitive exclusion
(b) B. Keystone predators
(c) Patchy environments
(d) Moderate disturbances

46. Which of the following statement about succession is correct?
(a) Secondary succession occurs when no soil exists
(b) Primary succession occurs in areas where soil remains after a disturbance
(c) Secondary succession can occur where a disturbance has left soil intact
(d) Some cases of succession involve facilitation, a phenomenon in which local species inhibit the growth of newcomers

47. What is the fundamental difference between matter and energy?
(a) Matter is cycled through ecosystems; energy is not
(b) Energy is cycled through ecosystems; matter is not
(c) Energy can be converted into matter; matter cannot be converted into energy
(d) Matter can be converted into energy; energy cannot be converted into matter

48. The phosphorus cycle differs from those of carbon and nitrogen in that
(a) It lacks a gaseous phase
(b) It lacks a liquid phase
(c) Living organism don’t need phosphorus
(d) The phosphorus cycle does not differ importantly from the carbon and nitrogen cycle.

49. Identify the correct statement
P. The second law of thermodynamics is also known as the law of conservation of energy
Q. Entropy is a measure of the available energy resulting from transformations
R. The transfer of energy through the food chain of an ecosystem is termed as energy flow
S. The second law of thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy towards more avail able state.
(a) P, Q
(b) P, R
(c) R, S
(d) Q, S

50. Heterosopory is seen in
(a) Chara
(b) Ricia
(c) Selaginella
(d) Vaucheria

51. The IUCN recognised categories under ?threatened? include
(a) Extinct, Critically endangered and Endangered
(b) Extinct, Extinct in the wild and Endangered
(c) Critically endangered, Endangered and Near threatened
(d) Critically endangered, Endangered and vulnerable

52. Endemic polyploids usually of hybrid origin arising from widely distributed diploids are known as
(a) Apoendemics
(b) Neoemdemics
(c) Patroendemics
(d) Schizoendemics

53. A geographical area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species is known as a
(a) Phytochorian
(b) Ecotone
(c) Tenson zone
(d) Biospehere

54. The photobiont in lichen is a
(a) Fungus
(b) Pteridophyte
(c) Bryophytes
(d) Algae

55. In each cell compartment of a dikaryotic heterokaryon there exist
(a) Two identical viable nuclei
(b) Two identical dead nuclei
(c) Two different viable nuclei
(d) Two different dead nuclei

56. Siderophores in fungi bind or complex with
(a) Copper
(b) Zink
(c) Iron
(d) Manganese

57. Which is the correct sequence of pathogen for mentioned plant diseases
P. Late blight of potato Q. Early blight of potato R. Club rot of cauliflower S. Black scurf of potato
(a) Phytopthora infestans, Alternaria solani, Plasmodiospora brassicae, Rhizoctonia solani
(b) Alternaria solani, Plasmodiospora brassicae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytopthora infestans
(c) Plasmodiospora brassicae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytopthora infestans, Alternaria solani
(d) Rhizoctonia solani, Phytopthora infestans, Alternaria solani, Plasmodiospora brassicae