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About Harappan Civilization
Excavations in the Indus valley at the beginning of the twentieth century have led to the discovery of an advanced Aryan civilization. This proves that an advanced urban civilization was born in India about 1000 years before the birth of Christ and this civilization is contemporary with the civilizations of Egypt, the Arctic, Babylon and the Akkadian Empire.
In 1921, Dayaram Sahani found an advanced civilization on the banks of the Irrawaddy or Ravi River in the Montgomery district of the Punjab. At the same time, in 1922, the eminent Bengali archaeologist Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay discovered an advanced civilization at Mohenjodaro in the district of Larkana in the province of Sindh on the west bank of the river Indus. The names of Sir John Marshall, Nanigopal Majumdar and other archaeologists are involved in this discovery.
Why Indus Valley Civilization is Called Harappan Civilization?
This civilization is called the Indus Civilization because it was discovered on the banks of the river Indus. Recently, about 15 centers of this civilization, large and small, have been discovered across the Indus in India and beyond. For this reason, it is no longer called the Indus Civilization, but according to the name of the first discovered place, it is called the Harappan Civilization or Harappan Culture.
We should keep in mind that not only in 1921, but also in 1875, Alexander Cunningham discovered the Harappan seal. The artifacts found at Harappa are much older and more important than Mohenjodaro. Hence the name Harappan civilization or Harappan culture is reasonable.
What is the duration of Harappan Civilization?
There are many doubts about the antiquity of the Harappan civilization. According to John Marshall, this civilization was the oldest. According to the historian Will Durant, this civilization is older than the Egyptian civilization. It is very difficult to determine the antiquity or the period of this civilization and there is no end to the differences among the scholars. In addition, the concept of the Harappan civilization is constantly changing as new archeological experiments methods and information is discovered.
According to John Marshall, the beginning and end of this civilization took place between 3250 and 2750 BC. Currently the Harappan civilization dates back to 2300 BC to 1750 through radiocarbon 14 experiments. Recently, there has been a tendency to push back the time limit on both sides of the test method called Dendrochronology. But on the whole almost everyone has accepted the period of Harappan civilization from 3000 BC to 1500 BC.
Who Create Indus Valley Civilization?
There is disagreement among scholars as to who is the creator of Harappan civilization. Anthropological examination of the skeletons found in the Indus Valley has led scholars to find four ethnic groups here. They are Proto-Australoid, Mediterranean, Alpine and Mongolia. These skeletons are so few in number that no conclusion can be drawn by them. Scholars also continue to do some more experiments.
According to many, Aryans are the creators of Indus civilization. Many again talk about this to the Dravidians. While there are some arguments in favor of these doctrines, there is much to be said against them. So, none of this is universally accepted.
Indus Valley Civilization Questions and Answers Objective MCQs
1. Harappa is situated on the bank of the river :
2. Coins made of metal first appeared in
A. Harappan Civilisation
B. Later Vedic Age
C. Age of the Buddha
D. Age of the Mauryas
3. The earliest city discovered in India was
C. Mohenjo Daro
4. Which among the following has not been found in the excavation of Harappan sites?
A. Drains and well
D. Temple with Shikhar
5. The Harappan Civilisation was discovered in the year :
6. Which was the only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard?
D. Mohenjo Daro
7. Which was the only Indus city without a citadel?
8. Who among the following archeologists was the first to identify similarities between a pre-Harappan culture and the mature Harappan culture?
A. Amalananda Ghosh
B. Rakhaldas Banerjee
C. Daya Ram Sahni
D. Sir John Marshall
9. Off the following scholars, who was the first to discover the traces of the Harappan Civilisation?
A. Sir John Marshall
B. R. D. Baneji
C. A. Cunningham
D. Daya Ram Sahani
10. The Indus people knew the use of Weights and Measures, which is proved by the discovery of the seal at—
11. Who among the following is associated with the study of the Harappan Civilisation?
A. Charles Mason
C. M. Wheeler
D. M.S. Vats
12. The Harappans were the earliest people to produce
B. Bronze implements
13. The Ajanta pantings belong to the
A. Harappan period
B. Mauryan period
C. Buddhist period
D. Gupta period
14. Which among the following is not the characteristic feature of the Harappan settlement?
A. Doorways and windows generally faced the side lanes and rarely opened onto the main streets.
B. Houses generally had separate bathing areas and toilets
C. The citadel was walled but the lower town was not walled
D. Drains and water chutes from the second storey were often built inside the wall.
15. The Harappans were
16. Which of the following materials was mainly used in the manufacture of Harappan seals?
17. The Great Bath of Indus Valley Civilization is found at;
18. One of the following Indus Valley sites is in Pakistan :
19. Which of the following Harappan sites had a dockyard?
20. Out of the following remains excavated in Indus Valley, which one indicates the commercial and economic development?
A. The Pottery
C. The boats
D. The houses
21. Which of the following domesticated animals was absent in the terracottas of the Indus civilisation?
22. Which was the only Indus city without a citadel?
23. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization usually built their houses of
A. Pucca bricks
D. All of the above
24. Worship of Mother Goddess was associated with
A. Aryan Civilization
B. Mediterranean Civilization
C. Indus Valley Civilization
D. Later Vedic Civilization
25. The striking feature of the Indus Valley Civilization was
A. Urban Civilization
B. Agrarian Civilization
C. Mesolithic Civilization
D. Paleolithic Civilization
26. The Indus people knew the use of Weights and Measures, which is proved by the discovery of the seal at—
27. The script of the Indus Valley Civilization is
28. Lothal, the dockyard site of the Indus Valley Civilization, is situated in
29. Name the oldest Indian civilization.
A. Indus Valley civilization
B. Mesopotamian civization
C. Egyptian civilization
D. None of these
30. The people of the Indus valley civilisation worshipped
31. Which one of the following animals was not represented on the seals and terracotta art of the Harappan culture?
32. The site of Harappa is located on the bank of river
33. Which one among the following Indus cities was known for water management?
34. At which of the following sites the first evidence of the cultivation of cotton has been found?
35. Which one among the following statement regarding Jorwe Culture is not correct?
A. Pravara-Godavari Valley was the nuclears zone of Jorwe Culture
B. The main sites of Jorwe Culture are Daimabad, Inamgaon, Jorwe and Nevasa
C. At Daimabad one gets archaeological evidence of symbolic burial
D. Practically all Jorwe settlements in the Northern Deccan were suddenly deserted