Excretory Products and their Elimination

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Excretory Products and their Elimination

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MCQ on Excretory Products and their Elimination

1. Which of the following statements is correct?
A. The ascending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to water.
B. The descending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to water.
C. The ascending limb of loop of Henle is permeable to water.
D. The descending limb of loop of Henle is permeable to electrolytes.

2. The part of nephron involved in active reabsorption of sodium is-—
A. distal convoluted tubule
B. proximal convoluted tubule
C. Bowman’s capsule
D. descending limb of Henle‘s

3. Read the following statements and choose the correct option.
(i) The glomerular filtration rate in a healthy individual is about 180 ml per day.
(ii) All the constitutents of the plasma pass into the lumen of Bowman’s capsule.
(iii) 70-80% of electrolytes and water are reabsorbed in the PCT.
(iv) Angiotensin II increases the glomerular blood pressure and GFR.
(v) The counter current systems contribute in concentrating the filtrate.
A. (i) and (ii) only are correct.
B. (v) alone is correct.
C. (ii), (iii) and (iv) only are correct.
D. (iii), (iv) and (v) only are correct
E. (i), (iv) and (v) only are correct.

4. In mammals, ammonia produced by metabolism is converted into urea in the—
A. Kidney
B. Liver
C. spleen
D. blood

5. Excretory structures in Rotifers are—
A. green glands
B. malpighian tubules
C. flame cells
D. gills

6. Facultative absorption of water from primary urine is influenced by the hormone—
A. Vasopressin
B. Androgens
C. Thyroxine
D. epinephrine

7. Which part of the nephron is impermeable to water?
A. Proximal convoluted tubule
B. Distal convoluted tubule
C. Ascending limb of loop of Henle
D. Decending limb of loop of Henle

8. When kidney of a person is damaged, he/she invariably suffers from anaemia because-
A. RBCs pass through the glomerulus
B. sufficient erythropoietin is not produced
C. haemoglobin is not synthesised sufficiently
D. iron and vitamin B12 are not able to bind to haemoglobin.

9. A fall in glomerular filtration rate activates-
A. adrenal medulla to release adrenaline
B. juxtaglomerular cells to release renin
C. posterior pituitary to release vasopressin
D. adrenal cortex to release aldosterone.

10. Assertion : ADH and RAAS work in response to low blood volume and blood pressure.
Reason : ANF works in response to high blood volume and blood pressure.
A. if both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
B. If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
C. If assertion is true but reason is false.
D. If both assertion and reason are false.

11. The principal nitrogenous excretory compound in humans is synthesised-
A. in kidneys but eliminated mostly through liver
B. in kidneys as well as eliminated by kidney
C. in liver and also eliminated by the same through bile
D. in the liver, but eliminated mostly through kidneys.

12. Human urine is usually acidic because-
A. potassium and sodium exchange generates acidity
B. hydrogen ions are actively secreted into the filtrate
C. the sodium transporter exchanges one hydrogen ion for each sodium ion, in peritubular capillaries
D. excreted plasma proteins are acidic

13. Which hormone is responsible for reabsorption of water in kidney?
A. ADH
B. STH
C. ACTH
D. GTH

14. Which one of the following components of urine in a healthy human does not differ much in concentration from that of blood plasma?
A. NH4+
B. K+
C. Na+
D. SO4-

15. Vasa recta refers to-
A. rectum region of the insects
B. blood capillaries in invertebrates
C. a fine blood capillary network of afferent arteriole
D. a fine capillary which runs parallel to Henle’s loop

16. Choose the wrong statement regarding urine formation-
A. filtration is non-selective process performed by glomerulus.
B. The glomerular capillary blood pressure causes filtration of blood through three layers.
C. GFR in a healthy individual is approximately 125 ml/min.
D. The ascending limb of the Henle’s loop is permeable to water but allows transport of electrolytes actively or passively.

17. The ornithine cycle occurs in the-
A. Hepatocytes
B. Adipocytes
C. Osteocytes
D. histiocytes

18. Which of the following is not secreted in urine?
A. Niacin
B. Ascorbic acid
C. Cholecalciferol
D. Thiamine

19. The basic functional unit of human kidney is—
A. Henle’s loop
B. Nephron
C. Nephridia
D. pyramid

20. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a special region formed by close placement and cellular modifications in—
A. proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule
B. loop of Henle and collecting duct
C. afferent arteriole and distal convoluted tubule
D. afferent arteriole and proximal convoluted tubule.

21. Which of the following is most appropriate regarding kideny function regulation?
Stimulation of—
A. renin-angiotensin mechanism decreases the Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) while atrial natriuretic factor increases GFR.
B. renin-angiotensin mechanism increases GFR while atrial natriuretic factor decreases GFR
C. renin-angiotensin mechanism and atrial natriuretic factor both increase the GFR.
D. renin-angiotensin mechanism and atrial natriuretic factor both decrease the GFR.

22. Which of the following causes an increase in sodium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule?
A. Increase in aldosterone levels
B. Increase in antidiuretic hormone levels
C. Decrease
D. Decrease in antidiuretic hormone level

23. What is added to the blood during haemodialysis to prevent blood clotting?
A. Haemoglobin
B. Haemocyanin
C. Heparin
D. Thrombin

24. Proximal convoluted tubule to nephron is responsible for—
A. filtration of blood
B. maintenance of glomerular filtration rate
C. selective reabsorption of glucose, amino acid, NaCl and water.
D. reabsorption of salts only

25. Identify the correct statement regarding urine formation.
A. counter current mechanism works around the glomerulus and PCT.
B. To prevent diuresis, ADH facilitates water reabsorption from the latter parts of tubule.
C. Maximum absorption of electrolytes occurs in the Henle’s loop.
D. A decrease in blood pressure can increase the glomerular filtration rate.

26. Which blood vessel in mammals normally carries maximum amount of urea?
A. Renal artery
B. Hepatic vein
C. Renal vein
D. Hepatic protal vein

27. Which are the components of ornithine cycle?
A. Ornithine, citrulline and alanine
B. Ornithine, citrulline and arginine
C. Ornithine, alanine and fumaric acid
D. Ornithine, citrulline and fumaric acid

28. Which of the following causes decrease in blood pressure?
A. Renin
B. Angiotensin
C. ANF
D. None of these

29. Which of the following are not ureotelic?
A. Mammals
B. Terrestiral amphibians
C. Aquatic insects
D. Birds
A. A&D
B. B&D
C. C&D
D. A&C

30. During tubular reabsorption, high concentration of NaCl in interstitial fluid around Henle’s loop facilitates the absorption of—
A. Glucose
B. fatty acids
C. water mineral
D. salts

31. Uricotelism is found in—
A. mammals and birds
B. birds, reptiles and insects
C. fishes and freshwater protozoans
D. frogs and toads

32. If excess of uric acid is not excreted from the body it will affect—
A. Kidney
B. Liver
C. skeletal joints
D. lungs

33. The accumulation of urea in the blood due to malfunctioning of kidneys is referred as—
A. Uremia
B. renal calculi
C. edema
D. glomerulonephritis

34. Snake, a terrestrial animal that excretes nitrogen wastes in the form of uric acid, is called—
A. Uricotelic
B. Ureotelic
C. ammonotelic
D. not confirmed for any type

35. Which of the following is true for excretion in humans?
A. Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed in PCT by simple diffusion.
B. DCT is impermeable to water.
C. On an average, 25-30 gm of urea is excreted out per day.
D. Maximum reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle.

36. Assertion (A) : The regulation of RBC production is accompained by the kidneys.
Reason (R) : Erythropoietin hormone circulates to the red bone marrow, where it increases stem cell mitosis and speeds up the development of RBCs.
A. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of the A.
B. Both A and R are correct, but the R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. A is correct, but R is incorrect
D. Both A and R are incorrect.

37. What is glycosuria?
A. Low amount of sugar in urine
B. Low amount of fat in urine
C. Average amount of carbohydrate in urine
D. High amount of sugar in urine

38. Functional kidney of mammals is—
A. archinephros type
B. ophisthonephros type
C. pronephros type
D. metanephros type

39. The peritubular capillaries of the nephron arise from the-
A. afferent arteriole
B. efferent arteriole
C. renal artery
D. arcuate artery

40. Juxtaglomerular cells secrete A when there is a fall in B ion concentration.
Choose the correct pair labelled as A and B.
A. A: Renin B : Chloride
B. A: Carbonic anhydrase B : Sodium
C. A : ATPase B : Potassium
D. A: Renin B : Sodium

41. The maximum amount of electrolytes and water (70 – 80 per cent) from the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in which part of the nephron?
A. Ascending limb of loop of Henle
B. Distal convoluted tubule
C. Proximal convoluted tubule
D. Descending limb of loop of Henle.

42. Which one of the following characteristics is common both in humans and adult frogs?
A. four chambered heart
B. Internal fertilisation
C. Nucleated RBC‘s
D. Ureotelic mode of excretion

43. A fall in Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) activates-
A. juxtaglomerular cells to release renin
B. adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
C. adrenal medulla to release adrenaline
D. posterior pituitary to release vasopressin

44. Malpighian tubules are—
A. excretory organs of insects
B. excretory organs of annelids
C. respiratory organs of insects
D. respiratory organs of annelids

45. Uric acid is the chief nitrogenous component or excretory product of—
A. Man
B. Earthworm
C. Cockroach
D. frog

46. Proximal convoluted tubule of nephron is responsible for-
A. filtration of blood
B. maintenance of glomerular filtration rate
C. selective reabsorption of glucose, amino acid, NaCl and water
D. reabsorption of salts only

47. Juxtaglomerular apparatus is made up of—
A. juxtaglomerular cell, macula densa and lacis cell
B. juxtaglomerular cell, purkinje cell and chief cell
C. juxtaglomerular cell, lacis cell and myoepithelial cell
D. juxtaglomerular cell, macula densa and argentafiin cell

48. What are ketone bodies?
A. Acetoacetic acid, acetone and B-hydroxybutyric acid
B. Nicotinic acid, folic acid and ascorbic acid
C. Acetone, B-hydroxybutyryl Co-A and acetoacetic acid
D. Acetic acid, acetone and B-hydroxybutyric acid

49. Which one of the following is correct for a normal human?
A. pH of urine is around 8
B. On an average, 25-30 mg of urea is excreted via urine.
C. Presence of ketone bodies in urine is an indicator of diabetes mellitus.
D. Glycosuria can be treated with hemodialysis.

50. Choose the wrong statement.
A. In ureotelic organisms, ammonia is not a product of metabolism.
B. ln mammals some amount of urea may be retained in the kidney matrix of ureotelics to maintain osmolarity.
C. In fishes, kidneys do not play any significant role in the removal of ammonium ions.
D. Urea and uric acid are less toxic than ammonia.

51. The part of a nephron which opens into the collecting duct is/are—
A. oct
B. DCT and PCT
C. Henle‘s loop
D. Glomerulus

52. Which of the following is excreted in human urine?
A. Ammonia
B. Urea
C. Uric acid
D. Amino acid