Directions (Q. 1-13): Read the following passage and answer the questions given below it. Certain words in the passage are printed in bold so as to help you locate them easily while answering some of the questions.
The stubborn persistence of child malnutrition in India is one of the tragedies of our time. Many of us have long agonised over this preventable problem, and we continue to ask: why do half of our children not get enough or the right food or adequate care? Even in sub-Saharan Africa, only 30 per cent of the children are malnourished, versus 50 per cent in South Asia. And this gap exists despite our much higher levels of per capita income, education and even safer water access. One—third of the babies in India are born with low birth weight compared to one-sixth in sub-Saharan Africa. This is heartbreaking given the dramatic improvements in our agriculture, advances in literacy, and great strides in economic growth. For more than 20 years India has even sustained the greatest effort in history to improve nutritional standards, according to UNICEF, through its Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Programme. So it is not for lack of effort. Nor it is due to poverty, which has been steadily declining by one per cent a year for two decades. What accounts for this puzzle? In 1996, India’s famous physician nutritionist wrote a ground-breaking article on this called ‘The Asian Enigma’. After considering different factors, including access to food and income and our vegetarianism, he concluded that the lower status of women might be the reason. The link between women’s status and child nutrition seems plausible. In many Indian homes, men eat first; women have to make do with leftover. This is perhaps why 83 per cent of women in India suffer from iron deficiency-anaemia versus 40 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa. A malnourished mother will give birth to a baby with low birth weight. Moreover, domestic work often forces a mother to delegate the chore of feeding solid food to her baby to older siblings. If women had more control over family income and decisions, they would devote them to better pre- and post-natal care and to their children. So far this was the theory. But now a study by the International Food Policy Research Institute and Emory University seems to confirm this hypothesis. It brought together data from 36 developing countries, spanning over one hundred thousand children under the age of three and an equal number of women. It measured a woman’s position in the home—whether she works for cash, her age at marriage, and the difference in age and education between spouses. The study concludes that the lowly position of women in the family is the single most important reason for the gap in children’s nutrition between South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, followed by sanitation (lack of latrines) and urbanisation (slum living). I wonder why the position of women in India is worse than that of women in other societies. The report seemed to suggest that South Asian women were not so far behind African women as their inferior status too limited their ability to nurture children. I also wonder whether children’s well-being is only a woman’s issue or a family concern where men play a crucial role. I suspect there are no easy answers. Women everywhere suffer from lower status, but in India it appears to have devastating consequences. The policy implications are clear: if we want to reduce child malnutrition, we must combine our child programmes with efforts to improve the situation of women. To succeed, we need healthy children who’ll become tomorrow’s innovative adults. If we ignore gender inequality, we will continue to produce stunted children, wasted lives, and untold misery.
1. A hypothesis related to low birth weight has now been confirmed. According to this, the major reason for this state is
3) Illiteracy of women
4) Status of women
5) Slum living
2. Which type of scheme indicates that there was no lack of efforts in India for the last two decades to improve the situation?
2) Rural Development
3) Child Development
4) Family Planning
5) Poverty Alleviation
3. According to the author,
1) child malnutrition can be reduced with the help of child nutrition schemes.
2) increased family income would result in better pre and post-natal care.
3) men should play more involved role in children ’s well-being.
4) India has not put sustained efforts to improve nutritional standards.
5) 30% of our children still do not get enough food.
4. Which of the following is the major reason for a large number of women in India suffering from iron deficiency?
1) Women are not getting sufficient food
2) More women eating only vegetarian food
3) Women not eating balanced food
4) Lack of proper medical check-up
5) None of these
5. According to the passage, the problem of child malnutritionn
1) cannot be prevented
2) is not so severe now
3) is the same in all the developing nations
4) is linked with poverty
5) None of these
6. Choose the word that is SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘plausible’ as used in the passage.
7. Choose the word that is SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘stubborn’ as used in the passage.
8. Choose the word that is SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘spanning’ as used in the passage.
9. In which of the following areas is South Asia’s performance better than that of Sub-Saharan Africa?
1) Safer drinking water
2) Lower infant mortality rate
3) Higher status of women
4) Higher birth weight of children
5) None of these
10. According to the author, the crux is
1) women have lower status everywhere as compared to men.
2) improvement of sanitation and slum conditions.
3) that in India, the per capita income and education level of women is very low.
4) low status of women has horrifying result on child malnutrition.
5) None of these
11. Which of the following was one of the measures of women’s position in the home?
1) Number of children
2) Difference in husband’s and wife’s income.
3) Weights of child at birth
4) Age of marriage
5) None of these
12. What according to the passage is heartbreaking?
1) India’s performance lower than Africa
2) Failure of ICDS programme
3) Sub-Saharan Africa’s every one-sixth child being born with low weight
4) The puzzle of poverty declining only by one per cent a year
5) Higher status of women in Asia
13. Choose the word that is SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘dramatic’ as used in the passage?
Directions (Q. 14-23): In each of these sentences, some pars of the sentence are numbered (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). One of these parts has some error in it. The error may be either of spelling or grammar or wrong word or unnecessary word etc. The number of the part that contains error is the answer.
14. It was (1)/ natural that (2)/ some difficulties crop up (3)/ in his life, while (4)/ he was (5)/ studying.
15. Chatting on (1)/ the Internet with people only not (2) makes us (3)/ feel friendly but also (4)/ increases our (5)/ knowledge.
16. Knowledge will not attract money (1)/ unless it is (2)/ organised and intelligently directed (3)/ through practical plans (4)/ of action, to the definite end of accumulation (5)/ of money.
17. As the experiences (1)/ of other countries have shown, (2)/ an ailing (3)/ financial sector can very quickly (4) render wreck (5)/ the entire economy.
18. If you are (1)/ one of the (2)/ who have often wondered how (3)/ great fortunes are (4)/ made, this story will be enlightening. (5)
19. My only concern (1) is that (2) at this juncture (3)/ communal sentiments are rather (4)/ heightened up-wardly. (5)
20. However, (1)/ this division (2)/ of power is not quiet (3) as neat as it may (4) appear at first. (5).
21. He strongly felt that (1)/ that explanation (2) which was given (3)/ during the meeting (4) was not at all truth. (5)
22. We decided to (2)/ dedicate this article on the women (2)/ who have been instrumental in (3)/ training generations of (4) young girls to create a healthy (5)/ atmosphere.
23. When the opportunity came (1)/ it appeared (2) in a different form (3)/ and from a different (4) direction then he had (5) expected.
Directions (Q. 24-28): Rearrange the following five sentences A, B, C, D and E in the proper sequence to form a meaning paragraph; then answer the questions given below them.
A) The reasons for formal education getting nullified are that we teachers have limited vision, our judgements about students are hasty and we are more knowledge-centered then student-centered.
B) Life educates as nothing else does.
C) Churchill rose to dizzy heights despite his teachers’ prophesies to the contrary. And there are many more such examples.
D) Life’s teachings sometimes supplement the education received in the classroom and at other times nullify it.
E) Education received in the classroom is insignificant as compared to what life teaches us.
24. Which of the following will be the SECOND sentence?
25. Which of the following will be the THIRD sentence?
26. Which of the following will be the FIRST sentence?
27. Which of the following will be the FOURTH sentence?
28. Which of the following will be the LAST sentence?
IBPS Specialist Officers Recruitment Examination Preparation